SproutCore

SproutCore Guides

These guides are designed to help you write and perfect your code.

Core View Concepts

The guide covers some of the core concepts of views in SproutCore. By referring to this guide, you will be able to:

  • Layout your views relative to their parent.
  • Make your views dynamic with bindings.
  • Change how your views render and update themselves.
  • Handle events that occur over your view like a mouse click.

1 - Introduction

After you've created your first SproutCore project, you'll notice the file main_page.js in your resources folder. This is the main page that your app appends to the DOM in your main function. Let's start by looking at what every SproutCore project starts with as its main page:

The file main_page.js is included into the application's resources folder when using sc-init without the --template param.

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
AddressBook.mainPage = SC.Page.design({ mainPane: SC.MainPane.exend({ childViews: 'labelView'.w(), labelView: SC.LabelView.exend({ layout: { centerX: 0, centerY: 0, width: 200, height: 18 }, textAlign: SC.ALIGN_CENTER, tagName: "h1", value: "Welcome to SproutCore!" }) }) });

SC.Page uses .design() because it is more akin to .create() and you are actually intantiating the page object. All other views should use .extend() since view instantiation is handled by the page or the view's parent view.

To understand what all of this means, we'll have to look at and understand what this boilerplate code does. AddressBook.mainPage is our main application page. Your application may end up having several "pages" or you may choose to swap content into and out of a single page. AddressBook.mainPage is an SC.Page which works by lazily configuring itself. The views within a page are only awakened when you get the page in the main.js file:

apps/addressbook/main.js
AddressBook.getPath('mainPage.mainPane').append();

AddressBook.mainPage.mainPane is an SC.MainPane which is itself an SC.Pane. There will probably be many panes in your app because a pane is just like a regular view except that it doesn't need to live within a parent view. These can be anything from a palette to a popup to a menu. In this case, our pane is an SC.MainPane which automatically makes itself the main pane as soon as it's appended to the doument.

Our main pane is configured with only one childView, an SC.LabelView. SproutCore uses absolute positioning to lay out its views, and this label view is no different. Giving it a width and height allows us to place the label directly in the center of the page using centerX and centerY. These attributes specify how many pixels offset from the center we'd like the view.

The w function splits a string by spaces and turns it into an array. We could have accomplished the same thing by using childViews:['labelView'].

2 - Laying Out Views on the Page

Let's say we wanted to make an address book. This address book would have a list of all your contacts that you could scroll through and see contact details such as phone numbers and addresses. Let's start the address book by starting an SC.WorkspaceView which allows us to have a toolbar on the top and bottom and a view between those two toolbars:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
AddressBook.mainPage = SC.Page.design({ mainPane: SC.MainPane.extend({ childViews: 'workspaceView'.w(), workspaceView: SC.WorkspaceView.extend({ contentView: SC.View }) }) });

We now have a nice toolbar on the top of the page, but we still don't have a list of any contacts. If we want a list on the left and details on the right, it sounds like SC.SplitView is the perfect view to do that, so let's make that our contentView:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
workspaceView: SC.WorkspaceView.extend({ contentView: SC.SplitView.extend({ dividerThickness: 1, defaultThickness: 300, topLeftView: SC.View, bottomRightView: SC.View }) })

Our UI is starting to come together. We can see where we're going to have our contacts listed and where their details will be displayed. The dividerThickness is just a aesthetic property since the default defaultThickness will make our fixed view--in this case the topLeftView--300 pixels wide.

When you use values less than 1 for dimensions in SproutCore they're interpreted as percentages. E.g. width: 0.5 tells SproutCore that you want it to be 50% wide.

We're going to need to list our contacts, so let's do that to the left, with our details view to the right. For this, we could use SC.ListView which is used for generic lists of stacked information where you know each list item's height. Fortunately, SproutCore includes SC.SourceListView which not only looks great out of the box, but also provides the default behaviors of a source list:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
topLeftView: SC.SourceListView.extend({ content: ["Elizabeth Jones", "Arnold Washington", "Pete Matthews"] })

We can then move on to the details of a contact, such as his name, phone phone number, and address. We can use SC.LabelView for all three in our bottomRightView:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
bottomRightView: SC.View.extend({ childViews: 'contactDetails'.w(), contactDetails: SC.View.extend({ layout: { top: 50, left: 50, bottom: 50, right: 50 }, childViews: 'nameLabel phoneLabel addressLabel'.w(), nameLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { width: 500, height: 18 }, value: "Contact name" }), phoneLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 40, width: 500, height: 18 }, value: "Contact phone number" }), addressLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 80, width: 500, height: 500 }, value: "Contact address" }) }) })

The labels are wrapped in contactDetails so they can be cushioned from the edges of the parent view to see them better. phoneLabel and addressLabel are given a top to clear each other so they don't overlap, and addressLabel is given a large height so a long address can wrap within the label. Right now these LabelViews are only placeholders until we hook their values to a binding.

3 - Binding Views to Controllers

Instead of having our source list content and our label values in our views, let's bind them to some controllers. We'll start by creating an SC.ArrayController for our list of contacts:

apps/addressbook/controllers/contacts.js
AddressBook.contactsController = SC.ArrayController.create({ allowsMultipleSelection: NO, content: [ SC.Object.create({ name: "Elizabeth Jones", phone: "(555) 391-1419", address: "145 Wandering Way, Austin, TX 78701", website: 'http://www.elizabethjonesproductions.com' }), SC.Object.create({ name: "Arnold Washington", phone: "(453) 749-1585", address: "378 North 16th St., Ann Arbor, MI 79883", website: 'http://www.arnoldwashingtonmedia.com' }), SC.Object.create({ name: "Pete Matthews", phone: "(343) 856-3750", address: "935 2nd St., Phoenix, AZ 87435", website: 'http://www.petematthewsfurniture.com' }) ] });

Because we are only going to be working with one object at a time, allowsMultipleSelection: NO will restrict the ability to select only one item.

And then an SC.ObjectController that proxies individual contact objects:

apps/addressbook/controllers/contact.js
AddressBook.contactController = SC.ObjectController.create({ contentBinding: 'AddressBook.contactsController.selection' });

An object controller will automatically detect if you have a single selection and will automatically set it's content to the only item in the selection set. If you are in the rare case of needing to force a single selection, you can use SC.Binding.single('AddressBook.contactsController.selection').

Now we can bind our source list to the SC.ArrayController to get a dynamic list of contacts and individual contact selection support:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
topLeftView: SC.SourceListView.extend({ contentValueKey: 'name', contentBinding: 'AddressBook.contactsController.arrangedObjects', selectionBinding: 'AddressBook.contactsController.selection' })

With the contacts selectable, the only thing missing is dynamic label values for the contact's name, phone, and address:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
bottomRightView: SC.View.extend({ layout: { top: 50, left: 50, bottom: 50, right: 20 }, childViews: 'nameLabel phoneLabel addressLabel'.w(), nameLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { width: 500, height: 18 }, valueBinding: SC.Binding.oneWay('AddressBook.contactController.name') }), phoneLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 40, width: 500, height: 18 }, valueBinding: SC.Binding.oneWay('AddressBook.contactController.phone') }), addressLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 80, width: 500, height: 500 }, valueBinding: SC.Binding.oneWay('AddressBook.contactController.address') }) })

Using SC.Binding.oneWay is not necessary here, but using one way bindings when you don't need changes from the view reflected back to the controller--which is the case for these label views--gives better performance.

The contact information will now change automatically whenever a new contact is selected.

4 - Custom View Styling and Rendering

SproutCore provides three ways to customize how your view looks. You can simply give it a class name and add it to the view's classNames array property to style it using CSS, override its render method to use its own custom HTML, or use an SC.RenderDelegate to render and update all views of the view type.

4.1 - Using CSS to Style a View

Let's make the interface a bit more visually appealing and user friendly by giving a usage hint when no contact has been selected yet. We can create a generic view and add the class name app-usage-hint to the classNames array, and then a label view as a child to display the hint. Our bottomRightView should now look like this:

apps/addressbook/resources/main_page.js
bottomRightView: SC.View.extend({ childViews: 'usageHint contactDetails'.w(), usageHint: SC.View.extend({ classNames: 'app-usage-hint', isVisibleBinding: SC.Binding.not('AddressBook.contactsController.hasSelection'), childViews: [SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { width: 300, height: 22, centerX: 0, centerY: 0 }, tagName: 'h1', textAlign: SC.ALIGN_CENTER, value: "Select a contact" })] }), contactDetails: SC.View.extend({ layout: { top: 50, left: 50, bottom: 50, right: 20 }, childViews: 'nameLabel phoneLabel addressLabel'.w(), nameLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { width: 500, height: 18 }, valueBinding: 'AddressBook.contactController.name' }), phoneLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 40, width: 500, height: 18 }, valueBinding: 'AddressBook.contactController.phone' }), addressLabel: SC.LabelView.extend({ layout: { top: 80, width: 500, height: 500 }, valueBinding: 'AddressBook.contactController.address' }) }) })

Right now it looks rather small, so let's add some style to it. Create a file in the resources directory and name it theme.css:

apps/addressbook/resources/theme.css
.app-usage-hint { background-color: #eee; } .app-usage-hint h1 { font-family: "Helvetica Neue Light", "HelveticaNeue-Light", inherit; font-size: 28px !important; line-height: 20px !important; color: #999; }

Now we have nice looking instructions for when a user first starts using the app. You can add as many class names to classNames as you want for any view.

4.2 - The render and update Methods

The render method is used to generate the view's HTML and is called whenever the view first renders itself. Any subsequent updates to the view can be handled by an update method.

As soon as you start overriding methods such as render and update, your views really need to be in their own files under the views directory. A good rule of thumb is that main_page.js should never have anything longer than a one line function.

The update method is called whenever a property that is defined on the view's displayProperties array is changed on the view. The render method is passed a context variable which is an SC.RenderContext. SC.RenderContext is used to queue up and build HTML for a view. You build HTML by calling context.push() and passing it HTML:

apps/addressbook/views/person.js
AddressBook.PersonView = SC.View.extend({ render: function (context) { context.push("<h1>Arnold Washington is 31 years young...</h1>"); } });

You can also use context.begin() and context.end() to begin building a tag and push arguments that are "stringable" (have a toString method) into it:

apps/addressbook/views/person.js
AddressBook.PersonView = SC.View.extend({ displayProperties: ['name', 'age'], name: 'Arnold Washington', age: 31, render: function (context) { var name = this.get('name'), age = this.get('age'); var context = context.begin('h1'); context.push(name, ' is going to be ', age+1, ' years young soon...'); context.end(); } });

The update method is passed a jQuery handle of the view's layer, the DOM element that belongs to the view. You can use it and all of jQuery's API to manipulate the DOM and update your view:

apps/addressbook/views/person.js
AddressBook.PersonView = SC.View.extend({ displayProperties: ['name', 'age'], name: 'Arnold Washington', age: 31, render: function (context) { var name = this.get('name'), age = this.get('age'); var context = context.begin('h1'); context.push('<span class="name">', name, '</span>'); context.push(' is going to be '); context.push('<span class="age">', age+1, '</span>'); context.push(' years young soon...'); context.end(); }, update: function (jquery) { var h1 = jquery.find('h1'); #find('.name').text(this.get('name')); #find('.age').text(this.get('age')); } })

Say we wanted to make the name of the contact bigger in the details. To do this, let's create a custom view called AddressBook.ContactNameView that will put the contact name in an h1 tag:

apps/addressbook/views/contact_name.js
AddressBook.ContactNameView = SC.View.extend({ displayProperties: ['value'], render: function (context) { context.push('<h1>', this.get('value'), '</h1>'); }, update: function (jquery) { jquery.find('h1').text(this.get('value')); } });

4.3 - Render Delegates

Render delegates are an way to manage theming your apps. You can create a render delegate to manage the rendering of your views for you and add it to the theme you're using. Render delegates also have a render and update method, but their first argument is the dataSource, or the view delegating to them. Let's recreate the last scenario using an SC.RenderDelegate that we're going to create in render_delegates/contact_name.js:

apps/addressbook/render_delegates/contact_name.js
AddressBook.MyTheme.contactNameRenderDelegate = SC.RenderDelegate.create({ render: function (dataSource, context) { context.push('<h1>', dataSource.get('value'), '</h1>'); }, update: function (dataSource, jquery) { jquery.find('h1').text(dataSource.get('value')); } });

Now we have to tell our view to use our new render delegate to draw itself:

apps/addressbook/views/contact_name.js
AddressBook.ContactNameView = SC.View.extend({ displayProperties: ['value'], renderDelegateName: 'contactNameRenderDelegate' });

For a more detailed overview of theming see Theming Your App

5 - View Events

Events bubble up to parent views in a SproutCore view hierarchy. SC.View extends SC.Responder, inheriting the ability to react to DOM events such as mouseDown and mouseEntered. Let's highlight the contact name when it's being hovered over and take the user to the contact's website if it's clicked:

apps/addressbook/views/contact_name_view.js
AddressBook.ContactNameView = SC.View.extend({ displayProperties: ['value'], renderDelegateName: 'contactNameRenderDelegate', mouseEntered: function () { var jquery = this.$(); jquery.css('cursor', 'pointer'); jquery.css('color', '#356aa0'); return YES; }, mouseExited: function () { var jquery = this.$(); jquery.css('cursor', 'normal'); jquery.css('color', '#000'); return YES; }, mouseDown: function (evt) { AddressBook.openWebsite(); return YES; } });

And in core.js:

apps/addressbook/core.js
openWebsite: function () { var website = AddressBook.contactController.get('website'); window.open(website); }

You should return YES when you've handled the event, otherwise it would propagate to all of it's parent views.

Actions such as these would usually be handled by a statechart and are handled here for the purposes of demonstration.

6 - Changelog

  • January 12, 2011: initial version by Devin Torres
  • March 2, 2011: added filenames and small code example changes by Topher Fangio
  • March 2, 2011: some corrections to section on render delegates by Peter Wagenet
  • March 4, 2011: corrected the title and added a few more filenames by Devin Torres
  • February 22, 2012: sample code changes and a few edits by Jeff Pittman
  • October 23, 2013: converted to Markdown format for DocPad guides by Topher Fangio